Michal Zimmermann Pieces of knowledge from the world of GIS.

Articles in the automation category

Ogrinfo Output Formatting

Written on Oct 21, 2016 and marked as gdal | automation

Today my workmate asked if there was a way to see an attribute table other than importing spatial data into a PostGIS database. I told him about QGIS and while talking about other GIS stuff, I started thinking about pipes and how awesome it would be to actually format the output of the ogrinfo command.

Here it is. It is just a much longer way to do ogr2ogr -f "CSV" dest source, but sometimes you just have to experiment a bit.


function columns {
    ogrinfo $FILE -al -so | \
    sed '/Column/,$!d' | \
    sed '/Geometry Column/d' | \
    sed -e 's/Column =/\:/g' | \
    awk -F: '{print $1}' | \
    awk -v RS= -v OFS="|" '{$1 = $1} 1'

function data {
   ogrinfo $FILE -al | \
   sed '/OGRFeature/,$!d' | \
   sed -e 's/OGRFeature\(.*\)\://g' | \
   sed -e 's/.*\s*\(.*\)\s*=\s*//g' | \
   awk -v RS= -v OFS="|" '{$1 = $1} 1'

{ columns; data; }

The result can be piped to other bash functions, such as less or more. I call it ogrinfotable.

How to convert DGN to Tiff with GDAL

Written on Feb 21, 2016 and marked as gdal | automation

We have to deal with DGN drawings quite often at CleverMaps - heavily used for infrastructure projects (highways, roads, pipelines), they are a pure nightmare to the GIS person inside me. Right now, I’m only capable of converting it into a raster file and serve it with Geoserver. The transformation from DGN to PDF to PNG to Tiff is not something that makes me utterly happy though.

All you need to do the same is GDAL, ImageMagick, some PDF documents created out of DGN files - something MicroStation can help you with - and their upper left and lower right corner coordinates.

# I recommend putting some limits on ImageMagick - it tends to eat up all the resources and quit
export MAGICK_TMPDIR=/partition/large/enough

# I expect two files on the input: the first is PDF file with drawing, the second is a simple text file with four coordinates on a single line in the following order: upper left x, upper left y, lower right x, lower right y
INPUT=${1:?"PDF file path"}
COORDS=${2:?"Bounding box file path"}
OUTPUTFILENAME=$(basename $INPUT | cut -d. -f1).png

# create PNG image - I actually don't remember why it didn't work directly to Tiff
gdal_translate \
    -co ZLEVEL=5 \
    -of PNG \
    --config GDAL_CACHEMAX 500 \
    --config GDAL_PDF_DPI 300 \
    -a_srs EPSG:5514 \ # Czech local CRS
    -a_ullr $(echo $(cat $COORDS)) \ # read the file with coordinates
    $INPUT \

# convert to Tiff image
convert \
    -define tiff:tile-geometry=256x256 \
    -transparent white \ # drawings come with white background

# build overwies to speed things up
gdaladdo ${OUTPUTPATH/.png}_alpha.tif 2 4 8 16 32

And you’re done. The .wld file will be present for each resulting file. I rename it manually to match the name of a GeoTiff - that should be probably done automatically as well.

Color Relief Shaded Map Using Open Data with Open Source Software

Written on Oct 25, 2015 and marked as bash, gdal, linux, qgis | automation

The Digital Elevation Model over Europe (EU-DEM) has been recently released for public usage at Copernicus Land Monitoring Services homepage. Strictly speaking, it is a digital surface model coming from weighted average of SRTM and ASTER GDEM with geographic accuracy of 25 m. Data are provided as GeoTIFF files projected in 1 degree by 1 degree tiles (projected to EPSG:3035), so they correspond to the SRTM naming convention.

If you can’t see the map to choose the data to download, make sure you’re not using HTTPS Everywhere or similar browser plugin.

I chose Austria to play with the data.

Obtaining the data

It’s so easy I doubt it’s even worth a word. Get zipped data with wget, extract them to a directory.

wget https://cws-download.eea.europa.eu/in-situ/eudem/eu-dem/EUD_CP-DEMS_4500025000-AA.rar -O dem.rar
unrar dem.rar -d copernicus
cd copernicus

Hillshade and color relief

Use GDAL to create hillshade with a simple command. No need to use -s flag to convert units, it already comes in meters. Exaggerate heights a bit with -z flag.

gdaldem hillshade EUD_CP-DEMS_4500025000-AA.tif hillshade.tif -z 3

And here comes the Alps.

To create a color relief you need a ramp of heights with colors. “The Development and Rationale of Cross-blended Hypsometric Tints” by T. Patterson and B. Jenny is a great read on hypsometric tints. They also give advice on what colors to choose in different environments (see the table at the last page of the article). I settled for warm humid color values.

Elevation [m] Red Green Blue
5000 220 220 220
4000 212 207 204
3000 212 193 179
2000 212 184 163
1000 212 201 180
600 169 192 166
200 134 184 159
50 120 172 149
0 114 164 141

I created a color relief with another GDAL command.

gdaldem color-relief EUD_CP-DEMS_4500025000-AA.tif ramp_humid.txt color_relief.tif

And here comes hypsometric tints.

Add a bit of compression and some overviews to make it smaller and load faster.

gdal_translate -of GTiff -co TILED=YES -co COMPRESS=DEFLATE color_relief.tif color_relief.compress.tif
gdal_translate -of GTiff -co TILED=YES -co COMPRESS=DEFLATE hillshade.tif hillshade.compress.tif
rm color_relief.tif
rm hillshade.tif
mv color_relief.compress.tif color_relief.tif
mv hillshade.compress.tif hillshade.tif
gdaladdo color_relief.tif 2 4 8 16
gdaladdo hillshade.tif 2 4 8 16

Map composition

I chose Austria for its excessive amount of freely available datasets. What I didn’t take into consideration was my lack of knowledge when it comes to German (#fail). States come from data.gv.at and was dissolved from smaller administrative units. State capitals were downloaded from naturalearth.com.

I’d like to add some more thematic layers in the future. And translate the map to English.

Few words on INSPIRE Geoportal

INSPIRE Geoportal should be the first place you go to search for European spatial data (at last EU thinks so). I used it to find data for this map and it was a very frustrating experience. It was actually more frustrating than using Austrian open data portal in German. Last news are from May 21, 2015, but the whole site looks and feels like deep 90s or early 2000 at least.

How to Use Queue with Rsync

Written on Oct 1, 2015 and marked as linux, bash | automation

Having more than 120K 5MB+ images that should be moved to the server is a great oportunity for some automatic bash processing. It might be good idea to use ImageMagick convert tool to make images smaller in a simple for loop. GNU Parallel can significantly increase the performance by running one job per CPU core.

parallel --verbose convert {} -quality 40% {} ::: *.jpg

The parallel modifies several images per second. Uploading these right away seems to be the next step. But how do you tell rsync to check for modified files every now and then? Another for loop mixed with sleep would work, but it just doesn’t feel right.

Luckily, there’s a inotifywait tool capable of watching changes to files and taking actions based on those changes.

inotifywait -e close_write -m --format '%f' . | \
while read file
    echo $file
    rsync -OWRD0Pq --ignore-existing $file data@localhost

By default, inotifywait stops after receiving a single event, while -m flag runs it indefinitely. -e flag defines an event to watch for, in my case that’s a close_write event. The inotifywait output can be piped to rsync that takes care of syncing local files to remote server.

The last step, as usual, is profit.

Automated Map Creation With QGIS, PostGIS, Python, SVG and ImageMagick

Written on Aug 9, 2015 and marked as qgis, postgis, python, svg, linux | automation

As mentioned in QGIS Tips For Collaborative Mapping we’re in the middle of crop evaluation project at CleverMaps.

With the QGIS workflow up and running, I’ve been focused on different QGIS related task: automatic map generation for land blocks that meet certain conditions. The logic behind identifying such land blocks is as follows:

  • if the original area and the measured one differ more than 0.5 % or
  • number of declared crops differs from number of crops identified or
  • at least one parcel in the land block was given a certain error code

Let’s assume that with several lines of SQL code we can store these mentioned above in a table called land_blocks with geometries being the result of calling ST_Union() over parcels for each land block.

Map composition

Every map should feature following layers:

  • land blocks (remember the land_blocks table?) - labeled with ID, yellowish borders, no fill
  • land parcels - that’s my source layer - labeled with letters, blue borders, no fill
  • other layers
  • HR, VHR, NIR imagery, orthophoto - served via WMS

Labels should be visible only for the featured land block (both for the land parcels and the land block itself. The whole map scales dynamically, showing small land blocks zoomed in and the large ones zoomed out.

Every map features additional items:

  • dynamic list of subsidies farmer asks for - showing both measured and declared area
  • dynamic list of land parcels with their areas and error codes
  • scalebar
  • map key
  • logos

Atlas creation

Now with requirements defined, let’s create some maps. It’s incredibly easy to generate a series of maps with QGIS atlas options.

Atlas generation settings

Coverage layer is presumably the only thing you really need - as the name suggests, it covers your area of interest. One map will be created for each feature in this layer, unless you decide to use some filtering - which I did.

Output filenames can be tweaked to your needs, here’s what such a function might look like. If there is a slash in the land block ID (XXXXXXX/Y), the filename is set to USER-ID_XXXXXXX-00Y_M_00, USER-ID_XXXXXXX-000_M_00 otherwise.

CASE WHEN strpos(attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'), '/') > -1
        ji || '_' ||
            attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'), 0,
            strpos(attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'), '/')+1 -- slash position
        ) || '-' ||
                attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'),
                strpos(attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'), '/') + 2,
                length(attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb'))
        3, '0') || '_M_00'
        ji || '_' || attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb') || '-000_M_00'

Map scale & variable substitutions

Different land blocks are of different sizes, thus needing different scales to fit in the map. Again, QGIS handles this might-become-a-nightmare-pretty-easily issue with a single click. You can define the scale as:

  • margin around feature: percentage of the space displayed around
  • predefined scale (best fit): my choice, sometimes it doesn’t display the entire land block though
  • fixed scale: sets the scale the same for all the maps

With these settings, I get a map similar to the one below. Notice two interesting things:

  • Scale uses decimal places, which I find a huge failure. Has anyone ever seen a map with such scale? The worst is there is no easy way to hide these, or at least I didn’t find one.
  • You can see a bunch of [something in the brackets] notations. These will be substituted with actual values during the atlas generation. Showing land block ID with a preceeding label is as easy as [%concat('PB: ', "kod_pb")%] (mind the percentage sign).

Styling the map using atlas features

Atlas features are a great help for map customization. As mentioned earlier, in my case, only one land block label per map should be visible. That can be achieved with a simple label dialog expression:

    WHEN $id = $atlasfeatureid
    THEN "kod_pb"

QGIS keeps reference to each coverage layer feature ID during atlas generation, so you can use it for comparison. The best part is you can use IDs with any layer you need:

    WHEN attribute($atlasfeature, 'kod_pb') = "kod_pb"
    THEN "kod_zp"

With this simple expression, I get labels only for those land parcels that are part of the mapped land block. Even the layer style can be controlled with atlas feature. Land parcels inside the land block have blue borders, the rest is yellowish, remember? It’s a piece of cake with rule-based styling.

Atlas generation

When you’re set, atlas can be created with a single button. I used SVG as an output format to easily manipulate the map content afterwards. The resulting maps look like the one in the first picture without the text in the red rectangle. A Python script appends this to each map afterwards.

Roughly speaking, generating 300 maps takes an hour or so, I guess that depends on the map complexity and hardware though.

Adding textual content

SVG output is just plain old XML that you can edit by hand or by script. A simple Python script, part of map post-processing, loads SVG from the database and adds it to the left pane of each map.

            '<g fill="none" stroke="#000000" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-width="1"
                  stroke-linecap="square" stroke-linejoin="bevel" transform="matrix(1.18081,0,0,1.18081,270.0,550.0)"
                  font-family="Droid Sans" font-size="35" font-style="normal">',
            kultura, vymery, vymery_hodnoty,
            vcs_titul, vcs_brk, vcs_brs, vcs_chmel,
            vcs_zvv, vcs_zv, vcs_ovv, vcs_ov, vcs_cur, vcs_bip,
            lfa, lfa_h1, lfa_h2, lfa_h3,
            lfa_h4, lfa_h5, lfa_oa, lfa_ob, lfa_s,
            natura, aeo_eafrd_text, dv_aeo_eafrd_a1,
            dv_aeo_eafrd_a2o, dv_aeo_eafrd_a2v, dv_aeo_eafrd_b1,
            dv_aeo_eafrd_b2, dv_aeo_eafrd_b3, dv_aeo_eafrd_b4,
            dv_aeo_eafrd_b5, dv_aeo_eafrd_b6, dv_aeo_eafrd_b7,
            dv_aeo_eafrd_b8, dv_aeo_eafrd_b9, dv_aeo_eafrd_c1,
            dv_aeo_eafrd_c3, aeko_text, dv_aeko_a, dv_aeko_b, dv_aeko_c,
            dv_aeko_d1, dv_aeko_d2, dv_aeko_d3, dv_aeko_d4, dv_aeko_d5,
            dv_aeko_d6, dv_aeko_d7, dv_aeko_d8, dv_aeko_d9, dv_aeko_d10,
            dv_aeko_e, dv_aeko_f, ez, dzes_text, rep, obi, seop, meop, pbz, dzes7,
      ) popis
FROM (...);

Each column from the previous query is a result of SELECT similar to the one below.

SELECT concat('<text fill="#000000" fill-opacity="1" stroke="none">BrK: ', dv_brk, ' ha / ', "MV_BRK", ' ha;', kod_dpz, '</text>') vcs_brk

The transform="matrix(1.18081,0,0,1.18081,270.0,550.0) part puts the text on the right spot. Great finding about SVG is that it places each <text> element on the new line, so you don’t need to deal with calculating the position in your script.

Scale adjustment is done with a dirty lambda function.

content = re.sub(r">(\d{1,3}\.\d{3,5})</text>", lambda m :">    " + str(int(round(float(m.group(1))))) + "</text>", old_map.read())

SVG to JPEG conversion

We deliver maps as JPEG files with 150 DPI on A4 paper format. ImageMagick converts the formats with a simple shell command:

convert -density 150 -resize 1753x1240 input.svg output.jpg


I created pretty efficient semi-automated workflow using several open source technologies that saves me a lot of work. Although QGIS has some minor pet peeves (scale with decimal places, not showing the entire feature, not substituting variables at times), it definitely makes boring map creation quite amusing. The more I work with big data / on big tasks, the more I find Linux a must-have.

The whole process was done with QGIS 2.10, PostGIS 2.1, PostgreSQL 9.3, Python 2.7, ImageMagick 6.7.

Clip Raster With Vector Using GDAL

Written on Jul 21, 2015 and marked as linux, gdal | automation

Recently I needed to clip several raster files with polygonal layer of municipalities. A solution to this task is pretty straightforward using GDAL and a bit of Bash and QGIS thrown in.

The necessary steps are:

  1. Put each polygon to a separate file. This can be done easily with Vector - Data Management Tools - Split Vector Layer in QGIS. The solution below assumes that each shapefile has the same basename as the raster file.
  2. These polygons are stored in the obce subfolder relative to the folder with rasters.
  3. An output folder exists that is used for… output, yes.
  4. Rasters are saved with output alpha band for nodata (-dstalpha flag).
  5. The script takes one argument - raster name.
  6. Profit!
#!/usr/bin/env bash

BASE=$(basename $OBEC _jpeg.tif)
echo $BASE
EXTENT=$(ogrinfo -so obce/${BASE}.shp $BASE | grep Extent \
| sed 's/Extent: //g' | sed 's/(//g' | sed 's/)//g' \
| sed 's/ - /, /g')
EXTENT=$(echo $EXTENT | awk -F ',' '{print $1 " " $4 " " $3 " " $2}')
gdal_translate -projwin $EXTENT -of GTiff $OBEC output/${BASE}.tif
gdalwarp -dstalpha -s_srs 'EPSG:5514' -t_srs 'EPSG:5514' \
    -co TILED=YES -\
    of GTiff \
    -cutline obce/${BASE}.shp \
    output/${BASE}.tif output/${BASE}.final.tif

Note that if gdalwarp doesn’t recognize an EPSG code (which is the case for my country national grid), you might pass it as a PROJ.4 string.

According to the point 5 in the above list, the script needs to be run in a loop:

for f in *_jpeg.tif;
    do the_script_above.sh $f

GRASS: Big Buffers Made Easy

Written on Apr 20, 2015 and marked as grass | automation

Recently I’ve written about struggling with fairly complex geometries in PostGIS. Lesson learned from the last time was to use more smaller geometries instead of several really huge. You can obtain the small ones from the big by cutting it with a grid.

A supervisor of a project I’ve been working on came up with a task that totally buried the previous process in a blink of an eye: Give me the buffer (diffed with original geometries) that is smoothed on the outer bounds so there are no edges shorter than 10 cm. I sighed. Then, I cursed. Then, I gave it a try with PostGIS. Achieving this goal involves these steps:

  • Dissolve intersecting buffers
  • Run some kind of generalization algorithm that is not defined in PostGIS
  • Diff original geometries
  • Cut buffer with grid so it works faster not so slow for the next steps

Two of those four are rather problematic with PostGIS: line smoothing and diffing the original geometries (I didn’t get to the last one, so it might be 3 of 4 as well).

Hello, I’m GRASS

I haven’t used GRASS for ages and even back then I didn’t get to know it much, but it saved the day for me this time.

grass -text path/to/mapset -c

v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=db user=postgres password=postgres" output=ilot_050 layer=ilot_2015_050 snap=-1 --overwrite
# turn the snapping off, I don't want the input changed in any way, even though it is not topologically valid
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=db user=postgres password=postgres" output=lollipops_050 layer=lollipops.lollipops_2015_050_tmp snap=-1 --overwrite
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=db user=postgres password=postgres" output=holes_050 layer=phase_3.holes_050 snap=-1 --overwrite
v.db.addcolumn map=ilot_050 columns="id_0 int"
v.db.update map=ilot_050 column=id_0 value=1

# dissolve didn't work without a column specified, dunno why
v.dissolve input=ilot_050 column=id_0 output=ilot_050_dissolve --overwrite
v.buffer input=ilot_050_dissolve output=ilot_050_buffer distance=20 --overwrite

# v.out and v.in routine used just because I didn't get the way attributes work in GRASS, would do it differently next time
v.out.ogr input=ilot_050_buffer output=ilot_050_buffer format=ESRI_Shapefile --overwrite
v.in.ogr input=ilot_050_buffer output=ilot_050_buffer snap=-1 --overwrite
v.overlay ainput=ilot_050_buffer binput=holes_050 operator=or output=combined_050_01 snap=-1 --overwrite

# tried v.patch to combine the three layers, it gave some strange results in the final overlay
v.overlay ainput=combined_050_01 binput=lollipops_050 operator=or output=combined_050_02 snap=-1 --overwrite
v.out.ogr input=combined_050_02 output=combined_050 format=ESRI_Shapefile --overwrite
v.in.ogr input=combined_050 output=combined_050_in snap=-1 --overwrite
v.db.addcolumn map=combined_050_in columns="id_1 int"
v.db.update map=combined_050_in column=id_1 value=1
v.dissolve input=combined_050_in column=id_1 output=combined_050_dissolve --overwrite

# get rid of < 10cm edges
v.generalize input=combined_050_dissolve output=combined_050_gen method=reduction threshold=0.1 --overwrite
v.out.ogr input=combined_050_gen output=combined_050_gen format=ESRI_Shapefile --overwrite
v.in.ogr input=combined_050_gen output=combined_050_gen snap=-1 --overwrite
v.overlay ainput=combined_050_gen binput=ilot_050 operator=not snap=1e-05 --overwrite output=ilot_050_diff
v.out.postgis input=ilot_050_diff output="PG:dbname=db user=postgres password=postgres" output_layer=onf3.buffer_050_diff options="GEOMETRY_NAME=wkb_geometry,SRID=2154" --overwrite
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=ign user=postgres password=postgres" output=buffer_050 layer=onf3.buffer_050_diff snap=-1 --overwrite
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=ign user=postgres password=postgres" output=grid layer=grid snap=-1 --overwrite
v.db.connect -d map=buffer_050

# instead of v.out and v.in routine
db.connect driver=sqlite database='$GISDBASE/$LOCATION_NAME/$MAPSET/sqlite.db'
v.db.addtable map=buffer_050
v.overlay ainput=buffer_050 binput=grid operator=and output=buffer_050_grid snap=-1 --overwrite
v.out.postgis input=buffer_050_grid output="PG:dbname=ign user=postgres password=postgres" output_layer=onf3.buffer_050_diff_grid options="GEOMETRY_NAME=wkb_geometry,SRID=2154" --overwrite

It is damn fast compared to PostGIS. It can be automated. It can be parametrized. It is robust. It is great!

Lesson learned

  • You cannot smooth lines by deleting edges shorter than n in PostGIS. At least I haven’t found the way to do so without defining your own procedure. You can with GRASS.
  • GRASS reduction algorithm always keep first and last node untouched. Thus, if they’re closer than n, they’ll stay even if you’d like to have them deleted.
  • Getting to grips with GRASS attribute data is rather hard after using shapefiles all your GIS life.
  • It is great to exploit synergy of different GIS tools used for what they’re best at.

The more I work with big data, the more I get used to not seeing them. That’s kind of a twist after crafting maps at university.

WMS Download For Future Offline Use

Written on Mar 15, 2015 and marked as ogc, python, wms | automation

Using WMS in real time might easily become pain in the ass due to low connection speed or slow server response. Downloading images beforehand seems to be a reasonable choice both to avoid any slowdowns and to improve user experience when working with WMS layers.

OWSLib is a great tool to help you get images from WMS server. Code and some comments follow.

import math
import os
import random
import time
from owslib.wms import WebMapService

BOTTOM_LEFT = (-679363,-1120688)
TOP_RIGHT   = (-565171,-1042703)
SRS_WIDTH   = math.fabs(-639084 - -638825) # tile width in units of crs => 259 m
SRS_HEIGHT  = math.fabs(-1070426 - -1070273) # tile height in units of crs => 153 m
PX_WIDTH    = 977
PX_HEIGHT   = 578

FORMAT      = 'image/png'
LAYERS      = ['KN', 'RST_PK']
SRS         = 'EPSG:5514'
STYLES      = ['default', 'default']

DIRECTORY = 'tiles/'
SLEEP     = random.randint(0,20) # seconds

dx = math.fabs(BOTTOM_LEFT[0] - TOP_RIGHT[0]) # area width in units of crs
dy = math.fabs(BOTTOM_LEFT[1] - TOP_RIGHT[1]) # area height in units of crs

cols = int(math.ceil(dx / SRS_WIDTH)) + 1
rows = int(math.ceil(dy / SRS_HEIGHT)) + 1

counter = 0

with open('world_file.pngw', 'r') as wld_template:
    tmpl = wld_template.read()

wms = WebMapService('http://services.cuzk.cz/wms/wms.asp', version='1.1.1')

for i in xrange(0, rows):
    if not os.path.exists(DIRECTORY + str(i)):
        os.mkdir(DIRECTORY + str(i))

    for j in xrange(0, cols):
        if os.path.exists(DIRECTORY + str(i) +'/kn_' + str(i) + '_' + str(j) + '.png'):
            counter += 1

        bbox = (
            i * SRS_WIDTH + BOTTOM_LEFT[0],
            j * SRS_HEIGHT + BOTTOM_LEFT[1],
            (i + 1) * SRS_WIDTH + BOTTOM_LEFT[0],
            (j + 1) * SRS_HEIGHT + BOTTOM_LEFT[1]

        img = wms.getmap(

        with open(DIRECTORY + str(i) +'/kn_' + str(i) + '_' + str(j) + '.png', 'wb') as png:

        with open(DIRECTORY + str(i) + '/kn_' + str(i) + '_' + str(j) + '.pngw', 'w') as wld_file:
            wld_file.write('\n' + str(i * SRS_WIDTH + BOTTOM_LEFT[0]))
            wld_file.write('\n' + str((j+1) * SRS_HEIGHT + BOTTOM_LEFT[1]))

        counter += 1
        print str(counter), ' out of ', str(rows * cols)

First, always make sure you are not violating terms of use defined by service provider. If you are not, here are the necessary steps:

  1. Define your area of interest with bottom left and top right coordinates.
  2. Calculate width of single image both in pixels and units of CRS to get the rightsized image. Note that there may be image size restrictions defined by provider (2048 × 2048 px is usually the biggest you can get).
  3. Define template world file for referencing images. OWSLib doesn’t provide world files to saved images, these have to be created by you. I recommend to use a template file for creating real world files.
  4. Be nice! Don’t overload the service. I use time.sleep() for this.
  5. Profit.

The trouble with WMS is that you can’t set an arbitrary scale you want to obtain images in (e.g. 1:1 000). It’s fairly easy to get all values needed to imitate this behavior though.

Using QGIS you can:

  1. Get bounding box of area you’re interested in.
  2. Save current view as an image (together with the world file!) and use it as a specimen for your own world files.
  3. Derive image width (CRS, pixels) from the saved image, thus getting the same zoom level you were using in QGIS.

Code given is not bulletproof, it will fail on any network error. However, if you restart it after such a crash, it checks for existing files and starts with the first missing, so you don’t have to download all the tiles again.